Papaya: Uses, Benefits, Side Effects and More!


Carica papaya L. (papaya) is a tropical and subtropical plant native to Mexico and northern South America that has change into naturalised in lots of components of the world. Papye, pawpaw, lapaya, tapayas, and kapaya are a number of the different names of papaya. It’s an erect, massive herbaceous plant that resembles a tree however just isn’t woody. The leaves are enormous, palm-shaped, with a median diameter of 50-70 cm. Relying on the flower kind, the fruit that develops has a special form. The fruit is 5-30 cm lengthy and yellowish-orange in color. The pulp is good, and the fruit accommodates many black seeds.1

Papaya’s fruits, seeds, leaves and peels have nutraceutical worth, making them beneficial additions to the human food plan. Papaya is wealthy in macro and micronutrients.2 Tannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, and glycosides are present in papaya leaves, whereas sodium, calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc, potassium, phosphorus, manganese, and different minerals are present in papaya shoots and papaya peels.1

Papaya is a straightforward plant to develop in any well-drained soil that is freed from standing water, which might kill the plant in 24 hours. When correctly manured, papaya timber can develop in a short time in gentle tropical soil with a pH of 6.5 to 7.0. The tree and its fruits require the least quantity of rainfall in the summertime and spring. Excessive chilly or warmth might be damaging to the tree and its fruits. Papaya timber and their fruits thrive in temperatures starting from 21 to 32 levels Celsius. A dry environment enhances the style of the fruits throughout ripening, whereas temperatures under 10 °C decelerate ripening. Moreover, it might take 8 to 10 months for the papaya seeds to bear fruit as soon as they’ve been planted. Relying on the environmental circumstances, the papaya tree can produce 30-150 fruits per 12 months.3

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Dietary Worth of Papaya:

The dietary content material fount of papaya fruits and papaya seeds is:

Elements Contents (mg/100 g)
Carbohydrates 7.76–13.44
Proteins 0.36–0.45
Lipids 0.20–0.29
Dietary fibre 0.37–0.60
β-carotene (μg/g) 208.67–4534.26
Ascorbic acid (mg/g) 35.32–43.80
Sodium 6.79–9.53
Potassium 18.36–24.78
Iron 0.61–0.85
Calcium 27.88–32.48
Zinc (papaya seeds) 5.00–6.17
Phosphorus 11.54–16.81
Copper (papaya seeds) 0.50–1.09
Manganese (papaya seeds) 2.50–3.10
Magnesium 9.45–13.63

Table1: Vitamins present in papaya2

Papain and chymopapain are enzymes discovered within the unripe fruit. Carotenoids corresponding to β-carotene and crytoxanthin are additionally present in fruit. Benzyl isothiocyanate and glucosinolatescarposide have been additionally reported to be discovered within the roots of papaya. The seeds of papaya comprise papaya oil that accommodates flavonoids, myricetin and kaemferol, whereas the fruit accommodates linalool, 4-terpinol, and monoterpenoids. Enzymes corresponding to papain, chymopapain, caricain, and protease omega have been found within the latex in addition to different parts of the plant.1

The papaya seed oil is excessive in lipidic phytochemicals and essential fatty acids like oleic acid. Different fatty acids discovered within the seeds embrace arachidic, palmitic, linolenic, and stearic acids.2

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Therapeutic Makes use of of Papaya:

Varied components of the papaya plant have therapeutic properties, as listed under.

  • Antioxidant
  • Antibacterial
  • Anticancer
  • Anti‐inflammatory
  • Antiulcer
  • Antidiabetic
  • Liver protecting
  • Wound therapeutic1
  • Immunomodulatory (immunity booster)
  • Anthelmintic (acts towards parasitic worms)
  • Contraceptive2
  • Antispasmodic (relieves muscle spasms)
  • Antifungal
  • Antimalarial4

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Advantages of Papaya:

1. Advantages of papaya for infections:

Papaya root extract was examined for antibacterial exercise towards a number of micro organism and fungi. Papaya leaf extract was discovered to exhibit antibacterial efficacy towards Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in accordance with researchers. The leaf extract had higher efficacy towards all Gram-positive micro organism.1

Papaya leaf extracts have been examined for antimicrobial efficacy towards Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans.1 One other research revealed the antibacterial exercise of papaya seed extract towards S. aureus, Bacillus subtilis, P. aeruginosa and E. coli. Inexperienced unripen papaya fruit extract was discovered to have antibacterial exercise towards E. coli and P. aeruginosa, in accordance with researchers.1

The antifungal exercise of extract from numerous components of the papaya tree towards Microsporum fulvum, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger has been reported.3 The antifungal exercise of crushed leaf extract was discovered to be environment friendly towards the vast majority of fungi.The juice of papaya leaves has been reported to be a helpful pure treatment for managing dengue fever. One of many bioactive elements of papaya, flavonoid, has been proven to have antiviral efficacy towards the dengue virus.3

2. Advantages of papaya for diabetes:

Papaya has lengthy been used to handle diabetes mellitus in a number of African societies. A number of research have discovered that sure components of the papaya tree decrease the blood sugar ranges in each people and animals. A research discovered that leaf extracts of papaya had hypoglycemic (blood sugar decreasing) results.3

Likewise, seed extract from ripe papaya has been proven to have antidiabetic properties with a major discount of fasting blood sugar ranges in an animal mannequin. Inexperienced papaya has additionally been prompt as a attainable remedy for diabetic sufferers.3

3. Advantages of papaya for the liver:

A number of animal research have proven the liver-protective advantages of papaya fruit extracts. The degrees of lipid peroxidation, complete bilirubin, serum enzymes have been discovered to be considerably decrease in animals who got papaya extracts.3

The liver protecting results of papaya stalk extract have been examined in an animal mannequin. The presence of bioactive substances, corresponding to tannins, alkaloids, and saponins, again up the normal use of papaya for the administration of liver harm.3

4. Advantages of papaya for ulcers:

Many research have proven that papaya leaves and seeds will help with abdomen and intestinal ulcers. An animal research discovered that papaya seed extracts can cut back abdomen acidity and gastric juice quantity and acidity, thus inhibiting ulcers and performing as a stomach-protective agent.3

5. Advantages of papaya for malaria:

Papaya leaf extracts exhibit antimalarial properties towards P. falciparum and have the potential for use as an atmosphere pleasant mosquito repellent.3

In response to animal research, papaya leaf extracts and famboyant bark (Delonix regia) have been discovered to have antimalarial exercise towards Plasmodium berghei. Tea ready from papaya leaves can be utilized to cope with malaria.3

6. Advantages of papaya for diarrhoea:

In response to a research, uncooked papaya extract demonstrated anti-diarrhoeal motion, whereas ripe papaya extract had important antidiarrheal exercise towards intestine pathogens. Ripe papaya extract had important antidiarrhoeal potential towards Plesiomonas shigelloides. In one other animal research, the papaya leaf extract was discovered to have good antidiarrhoeal exercise.1

7. Advantages of papaya for wounds:

The wound therapeutic means of papaya seed and root extract was investigated in animals. In response to the findings, the extract demonstrated wound therapeutic exercise. There was a major discount within the wound measurement on remedy with papaya latex.1

8. Advantages of papaya for most cancers:

The papaya plant accommodates papain, an enzyme that’s helpful within the administration of most cancers. Papain accommodates the pigment lycopene, which is extraordinarily reactive to free radicals and oxygen. Isothyocynate, present in papaya, protects the breast, prostate, pancreas, lungs, blood, and colon from most cancers.1

In a research, it was found that papaya leaf extract may sluggish the expansion of cancerous cells and decrease the most cancers markers. The anticancer exercise of the extracts of papaya’s aerial components was examined and confirmed on several types of most cancers cells: pores and skin most cancers, kidney most cancers, and breast most cancers cells.1 In response to one research, the black seeds of yellow ripe papaya have a major impact on lowering prostate most cancers cells proliferation.1

9. Advantages of Papaya for irritation:

Papaya accommodates alkaloids (like choline and nicotine), flavonoids, tannins, and saponins, all of which have been discovered to have a major influence on continual (long-term) irritation. Proteolytic enzymes present in papayas, corresponding to papain and chymopapain, have been additionally discovered to have anti-inflammatory properties.1

The anti-inflammatory results of papaya leaves extract have been studied utilizing a number of animal fashions. It was discovered that the extract of papaya leaves has anti-inflammatory properties. In an animal research, the aqueous extracts of papaya seeds have been discovered to exhibit anti-inflammatory properties.3

10. Advantages of papaya for the immune system:

Proteolytic enzymes present in papayas, corresponding to papain and chymopapai, have been proven to have immunity-enhancing properties. In response to a research, ripe and unripe papaya fruit present important immunity-enhancing results.1

In response to animal research, the ripened transgenic papaya fruit will increase the extent of immunoglobulins IgM (antibody) considerably, leading to improved immunity.1

11. Advantages of papaya for anaemia:

Anti-sickling (anti-anaemic) chemical substances corresponding to tyrosine, glycine, and phenylalanine have been present in immature papaya fruit. The presence of phenolic acids, fragrant amino acids, and antioxidant chemical substances in immature papaya fruit causes the anti-sickling (anti-anaemic) impact.2 In response to a number of research, unripe papaya fruits and dried leaves have been discovered to have attainable anti-sickling exercise and, subsequently, can be utilized within the administration of sickle cell anaemia.3

12. Advantages of papaya for contraception:

Papaya has been demonstrated to be an environment friendly contraceptive in each men and women. Papaya extracts have proven to be efficient as male contraceptives as per preliminary investigations. When examined in animals, the extracts prompted reversible infertility by decreasing sperm motility, viability, amount and interfering with sperm construction.2 It causes infertility by blocking spermatogenesis (sperm formation course of) within the testes. The papaya extract additionally prompted abortion by considerably decreasing progesterone ranges in animal fashions. Therefore, papaya extract had contraceptive actions in each female and male animal fashions, in accordance with analysis.2

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The way to Use Papaya?

Papaya can be utilized as:

  • Papaya leaf syrup
  • Papaya leaf pill
  • Papaya leaf ointment
  • Papaya leaf capsule4
  • Papaya fruit
  • Papaya juice3

Your Ayurvedic doctor will prescribe you the shape and dosage of the drugs containing papaya as per your requirement.

Aspect Results of Papaya:    

Unwanted side effects related to the surplus use of papaya are:

  • Pores and skin irritation
  • Allergic response
  • Uterine contractions (miscarriage)
  • Carotenemia (pores and skin discolouration; yellowing of soles and palms)
  • Abdomen upset
  • Respiration difficulties or wheezing (whistling sound throughout respiration)5
  • Nasal congestion5

Precautions to Take With Papaya:

Papain and chymopapain, two major components of papaya, have teratogenic (trigger delivery defects within the foetus) and abortifacient (might trigger abortion) properties. This may elevate the probability of uterine contractions since papain mimics prostaglandin and oxytocin, that are identified to induce labour in pregnant girls. This may have a damaging influence on infants’ and moms’ well being. Latex also can trigger oedema and placental bleeding, resulting in severe being pregnant issues and, generally, untimely supply. Therefore, papaya shouldn’t be utilized by pregnant females.6

No analysis has been documented on the secure use of papaya in youngsters. Subsequently, it ought to solely be taken underneath the supervision and recommendation of a doctor.

Interactions With Different Medication:

A number of medicines, like metformin, glimepiride (blood sugar decreasing medication), digoxin (a drug for coronary heart circumstances), ciprofloxacin (antibiotics), and artemisinin (antimalarial), might have important drug interactions with papaya leaves.7

Sugar-lowering drugs, corresponding to metformin and glimepiride, revealed difficult interactions with papaya leaf extract. When papaya leaf extract was mixed with metformin, it initially decreased metformin’s sugar lowering impact after two hours however then elevated it after 24 hours.7

When papaya leaf extract is mixed with artemisinin, it has additive antimalarial (kills the malarial parasite) results towards Plasmodium falciparum.7

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Often Requested Questions:

What’s papaya?

Papaya is a fruit, usually 5-30 cm lengthy and yellowish-orange in color. The fruit pulp is edible and accommodates many black seeds.1

The way to develop papaya?

It’s a easy plant to develop in any well-drained soil that is freed from standing water. When correctly manured, papaya timber can develop in a short time in gentle tropical soil with a pH of 6.5 to 7.0.3

Which vitamin is current in papaya?

Papaya accommodates nutritional vitamins A, C, and E.1

Is papaya good for diabetes?

Sure, papaya is sweet for diabetes. A number of research have discovered that sure components of the papaya tree decrease the blood sugar ranges in each people and animals.3

Is papaya good for the liver?

Sure, it’s good for the liver. The presence of bioactive substances, corresponding to tannins, alkaloids, and saponins, again up the normal use of papaya for liver harm remedy.3

Is papaya good for being pregnant?

No, papaya just isn’t good for being pregnant. Papain and chymopapain, the 2 major components of papaya, are discovered within the latex and have teratogenic (trigger delivery defects within the foetus) and abortifacient (might trigger abortion) properties.5

Does papaya improve blood sugar?

No, papaya doesn’t improve the blood sugar stage.3

The way to use papaya leaves for hair development?

Making use of the leaf extract to the hair will help in hair development and forestall baldness and hair loss.4

What are the advantages of consuming papaya?

Papaya has a number of therapeutic properties like antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer,anti‐fertility, anti‐inflammatory, antiulcer, antidiabetic, liver-protective, wound therapeutic, immunomodulatory, anthelminthic, contraceptive, antispasmodic, antifungal, anti-anaemia, and antimalarial exercise.1,2

Does papaya trigger abortion?

Sure, papaya causes abortion.5

Is papaya leaves good for dengue?

Sure, papaya leaves are good for managing dengue. The juice of papaya leaves has been reported to be a helpful pure treatment for coping with dengue fever.3

What do papaya leaves comprise?

Quercetin, kaempferol kaempferol 3-rutinoside, quercetin 3-rutinoside, kaempferol, myricetin 3-rhamnoside are the flavonoids current in papaya leaves.1


  1. Sharma A, Bachheti A, Sharma P, Bachheti RK, Husen A. Phytochemistry, pharmacological actions, nanoparticle fabrication, business merchandise and waste utilization of Carica papaya L.: A complete evaluation. Curr Res Biotechnol. 2020; 2: 145-160. Out there at:
  2. Dotto JM, Abihudi SA. Nutraceutical worth of Carica papaya: A evaluation. Sci Afr. 2021; 13: e00933. Out there at:
  3. Alara OR, Abdurahman NH, Alara JA. Carica papaya: complete overview of the dietary values, phytochemicals and pharmacological actions. Adv Trad Med. 2020: 1-31. Out there at:
  4. Sidat PS, Varachia AI, Vanshiya SK, Unagar AH, Akbari MG, Dhamat RC. Carica papaya leaves: One among dynamic plant components having a number of therapeutic actions. Himal J Well being Sci. 2020: 37-48. Out there at:
  5. Aravind G, Bhowmik D, Duraivel S, Harish G. Conventional and medicinal makes use of of Carica papaya. J Med Vegetation Research. 2013; 1(1): 7-15. Out there at: https://www.researchgate.internet/publication/285028880_Traditional_and_medicinal_uses_of_Carica_papaya
  6. Vij T and Prashar Y. A evaluation on medicinal properties of Carica papaya Linn. Asian Pac J Trop Dis. 2015; 5(1): 1-6. Out there at: https://www.researchgate.internet/publication/264386483_A_review_on_medicinal_properties_of_Carica_papaya_Linn
  7. Lim XY, Chan JS, Japri N, Lee JC, Tan TY. Carica papaya L. Leaf: a scientific scoping evaluation on organic security and herb-drug interactions. Evid Based mostly Complement Altern Med. 2021; 2021. Out there at:

Disclaimer: The knowledge included at this web site is for instructional functions solely and isn’t supposed to be an alternative choice to medical remedy by a healthcare skilled. Due to distinctive particular person wants, the reader ought to seek the advice of their doctor to find out the appropriateness of the knowledge for the reader’s scenario.

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